In the CP-S protocol, the system was first compressed or decompressed (depending on whether the target p is higher or lower than pg) from the equilibrium state at (p, γ) = (pg, 0) to the state at (p, 0). Then, simple shear was applied under the constant-p condition, until the system reached the target shear strain at (p, γ). At each shear step, the particle diameters were adjusted to keep p constant. In the CV-S protocol, the system was first compressed or decompressed from φ = φg to the target density φ, and then the simple shear was applied by keeping the volume constant. In the CS-C/D protocol, the system was first sheared from (φ, γ) = (φg, 0) to a target strain at (φg, γ), and then compression or decompression was applied while keeping the shear strain γ constant.

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