In the ZFC protocol, starting from the initial equilibrium configuration at (ϵ, γ) = (0, 0), we (i) sheared the system to a target shear strain at (0, γ) while keeping the volume strain unchanged, (ii) compressed it to a target volume strain at (ϵ, γ) while keeping the shear strain unchanged, (iii) applied an additional small shear strain δγ = 0.002, and (iv) measured the stress σZFC at the state point (ϵ, γ + δγ). In the FC protocol, the order of steps (ii) and (iii) was interchanged. The FC protocol therefore has the path (0, 0) → (0, γ) → (0, γ + δγ) → (ϵ, γ + δγ). The target shear strain was chosen such that it is below the yielding strain γ < γY. Here, the shear strain serves as an external "field" with respect to compression, in analogy to the magnetic field in cooling experiments on spin glasses (43). The stress was measured on a time scale t = 10 ≈ 10τ0, where τ0 is the ballistic time. This choice ensures that the ZFC protocol measures the short time response to shear, while the FC measurement corresponds to the long time response because the shear strain γ + δγ was reached before the volume strain was applied [see (24) for a detailed analysis on the stress relaxation dynamics]. This protocol generalizes the one used in (24), which corresponds to the case γ = 0.

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