At each step, we performed Ncollision = 100 − 1000 collisions per particle using the event-driven MD and then instantaneously increased the shear strain by Embedded Image, where δt is the time elapsed during the collisions. The instantaneous shear shifts all particles by xixi + δγzi, where xi and zi are the x − and z −coordinates of particle i. To remove the possible overlappings introduced during this shift, we switched to a harmonic interparticle potential and used the conjugated gradient (CG) method to minimize the energy. The harmonic potential was switched off after CG. The Lees-Edwards boundary conditions (59) were used [see (24) for more details].

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