The combined linear electrokinetic mobility (μEK) of each bacterial strain was determined by particle image velocimetry using a PIVlab MATLAB program described previously (38). Bacterial motion was tracked in a straight poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic channel with the linear sweep DC voltage applied (movie S2). Time lapse image sequences were recorded using a CCD camera, and the PIV program was used to yield the velocity field in the straight microfluidic channel in response to the varying applied voltage. The average velocity versus applied electric field was fitted linearly with the least squares method, and the best-fit slope was taken as the linear electrokinetic mobility for each bacterial strain.

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