Pure sulfur (analytical reagent, Sigma-Aldrich) was mixed with KB according to the quality ratio of 7:3. The mixtures were then sealed in a glass container and heated at 400°C for 20 hours to make sulfur and KB disperse fully and achieve nanoscale sulfur. The KB/S composite was acquired after being naturally cooled to room temperature.

The cathode electrodes for Li-S, Li-LiFePO4, and Li-NCM622 batteries were fabricated by respectively mixing the KB/S composite, LiFePO4, and NCM622 with Super P and polyvinylidene difluoride binder with a weight ratio of 8:1:1 via N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as a solvent. The slurries were immobilized on carbon-coated Al foils and dried for 24 hours in a vacuum oven at 60°, 80°, and 80°C, respectively. The sulfur, LiFePO4, and NCM622 cathodes were tailored in the diameter of 10 mm with active material loads to be about 1.5, 5.0, and 3.0 mg cm−2.

CR2032-type coin cells were assembled in an Ar-filled glove box (H2O < 0.1 ppm, O2 < 0.1 ppm). The coin cells with GPE were fabricated simply by direct in situ polymerization. The Celgard separator was sandwiched between the cathode and Li foil. The precursor solution was injected into the separator, and the batteries were filled with precursor solution. Subsequently, the assembled batteries were left to stand for a period of time to form GPE completely inside the battery. The comparison coin cells were fabricated by the same route except for the usage of the common LE of 1.0 M LiTFSI in DOL/DME with a volume ratio of 1:1.

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