Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and TGF-β were analyzed by individual ELISA kits purchased from eBioscience. The IL-17A levels were determined using an ELISA kit from BioLegend. The serum levels of ANAs, anti-dsDNA antibody, and RF were analyzed by ELISA kits purchased from Alpha Diagnostic International.

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