To explore the physical mechanism responsible for declining wind speeds in India, we conducted a number of simulations using the WRF model version 3.8.1. The WRF model was developed by the National Centre for Atmospheric Research and has been shown to be capable of simulating monsoon circulation and other weather phenomena. The model domain was configured using Mercator projections extending from ~22°E to ~137°E (160 grid points) in the east-west direction and from 50°S to 50°N (160 grids) in the north-south direction, with a horizontal resolution of 81 km (fig. S4). According to the surface temperature trend in MERRA-2, SST increased by about 0.7° and 1.3°, respectively, in regions 1 (the EIO) and 2 (the SIO) over the study interval explored here. To examine the impacts of strong warming on wind potential in India in these two regions, we carried out three experiments: (i) a control simulation (WRFctl) with normal settings covering MJJA for 2001; (ii) SST increased by 0.7° over the EIO (WRFw1); and (iii) SST increased by 0.7° and 1.3°over the EIO and SIO (WRFw1w2), respectively. The differences between WRFw1 and WRFctl are interpreted as representing the response of the model to warming over the EIO, and the differences between WRFw1w2 and WRFctl are taken as indications of the response of the model to warming over both regions.

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