To analyze the nature of the P-Tr mass extinction and recovery in the Triassic, marine fossil occurrences were collected from the Late Permian (Changhsingian, 254.1 Ma ago) to the Late Triassic (Rhaetian, 201.3 Ma ago). Taphonomic, stratigraphic, and geographic data were recorded for fossil collections. Like most paleontological databases, we compiled occurrences at the generic level as species determination is often inaccurate and patchy and the inclusion of indeterminate species occurrences is vital for boosting sample sizes. A total of 51,055 occurrences derived from 4221 collections in 1679 literature sources were collected and assigned to time bins at substage- or stage-level resolution. The total number of genera is 4321, which belong to 20 major marine groups (i.e., calcareous algae, coccoliths, dinoflagellates, corals, sponges, brachiopods, bryozoans, echinoderms, foraminifers, bivalves, radiolarians, hydrozoans, gastropods, annelids, ostracods, non-ostracod crustaceans, cephalopods, conodonts, fishes, and marine reptiles).

We binned the collection data into a series of 17 substage- or stage-level time intervals, averaging 3.1 Ma in duration. Subdivisions are primarily based on biostratigraphic data (see details in table S1) as well as chemostratigraphic data when available. These bins are, in sequential order, early Changhsingian, late Changhsingian, early Griesbachian, late Griesbachian, Dienerian, Smithian, Spathian, early Anisian, late Anisian, early Ladinian, late Ladinian, early Carnian, late Carnian, early Norian, middle Norian, late Norian, and Rhaetian.

Only occurrences with explicit generic assignments were included in our fossil database. The sifting criteria were as follows: (i) Indeterminate, unnamed, and misspelled taxa were excluded; (ii) ichnofossils were excluded; (iii) non-marine collections were excluded; (iv) multiple occurrences of the same genus in a single collection were treated as a single occurrence; (v) collections with uncertain stratigraphic ranges were excluded; and (vi) subgenera were treated as separate genera.

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