Heat-induced surface shrinkage was used for fabricating wrinkled surfaces over a large area. A PVP with ethanol solution was used for the upper layer and protecting layer for nanostructures at the same time. A 5 weight % PVP solution was coated over a structured surface by a spin coater. Afterward, heating in an oven at 135°C induced shrinkage of the PS substrate. By controlling the heating time, the applied areal strain ε (ε = (A0Af)/A0, where A0 and Af represent projected areas before and after strain relief, respectively, was controlled.

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