After nanoscale dot pattern formation on the PS substrate, the types of nanostructures can be tuned with different further lithographic processes including RIE, argon ion bombardment, and SSL. The types of nanostructures were designed as disk-, overhang-, and serif-T–shaped. For disk-shaped nanostructures, the nanoscale dot arrays were used as they were. In the case of the overhang-shaped nanostructures, the pillars underneath the gold dot patterns were made by O2 RIE under low vacuum conditions (~10−2 torr) with O2 [30 standard cubic centimeter per minute (sccm)] for 5 min and high vacuum conditions (~10−6 torr) with O2 (30 sccm) for 3 min. The overall processes for disk- and overhang-shaped systems are described in fig. S4. In addition, extra SSL processes were added for serif-T–shaped nanostructures. To fabricate the sidewall of the doubly reentrant feature, the dot pattern array–formed PS substrate was etched vertically (anisotropic) by RIE under high vacuum (~10−6 torr) with O2 (100 sccm) for 90 s. Then, an additional gold layer of 20-nm thickness was deposited by e-beam sputtering and argon bombardment under low energy (500 eV). In the SSL processes, the thin gold layer (~15 nm) of the sidewall was fabricated on vertically pre-etched PS. Details are described in section S1.

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