Sampling of behavior took place between 31 October and 10 December 2016 and was done in parallel to scent sampling, thus preventing us from knowing anything about patterns of scent production and chemistry in these species before behavioral data collection. We followed three groups of red-bellied lemurs (E. rubriventer), from which nine adults and subadults were identified individually. We followed each group for a week and then switched to the next one. We used focal animal sampling to obtain data on their behavior. We focused on a single individual for 15 min or until we lost visual contact with that individual and then switched to another individual, preferably one that did not precede the current one. During focal animal observations, we recorded every interaction with an individual fruit as a single data point. For each individual fruit, we recorded the plant species and whether the animal sniffed the fruit before either ingesting or rejecting it. We defined “sniffing” as bringing the fruit to immediate proximity to the nostrils without biting it (see also movie S1). We obtained 534 such data points for seven of the plant species for which we also conducted chemical analysis. For each species, we calculated the sniffing index by first dividing the number of fruits sniffed by the total number of fruits interacted with by each individual lemur separately and then averaged this figure across all individuals. We analyzed the data using Spearman correlations between the sniffing index and either the scent increase ratio or ripe-unripe scent dissimilarity. Statistical significance was tested using a linear regression model in which sniffing index was the response variable and scent increase ratio or dissimilarity was a single predictor. All analyses were conducted on R 3.4.3 (46) and the following packages: vegan (47), ape (48), phytools (49), lme4 (50), lmerTest (51), car (52), plotrix (53), and geomorph (54).

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