Samples were collected in the montane rainforest of the Talatakely region of Ranomafana National Park, eastern Madagascar. The frugivore community of the park is composed of four large lemurs, two small nocturnal lemurs, seven birds, and one bat (32). Samples were collected opportunistically. We included all plants from which we could obtain both ripe and unripe fruits from the same individuals, and because of their relative rarity, we tried to include species that are either exclusively or at least, to a large extent, dispersed by birds. We divided the model system into two classes: lemur specialists and bird-mixed. We classified species as lemur specialists if both published records (3238) and local knowledge concurred that only lemurs eat the fruits of these species. We classified species as bird-mixed when they are either exclusively, primarily, or partially bird-dispersed (table S2 and S3). This broader category includes taxa that are eaten exclusively or primarily by birds and generalist species that are eaten by both birds and lemurs. The assumption is that partial or full reliance on bird seed dispersal would substantially weaken the selection pressure to emit scent signals.

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