In the network, each PRE represents a neuron cell and its axon terminal. Each axon terminal was connected to the gate terminal of a 1T1R synapse. All synaptic TEs were controlled by a CMOS circuit providing a constant bias Vread = −0.3 V to induce the synaptic current Isyn in response to an axon spike (21). All source terminals were connected to the POST input (23, 35, 36), consisting of a TIA to convert the summed synaptic currents ΣIsyn into the internal potential Vint. The latter was compared with the threshold voltage Vth to induce fire for Vint > Vth. During supervised training, a teacher spike was applied to the TE to induce potentiation or depression. The voltage of the TEs was switched from Vread to a pulse of positive voltage VTE+ after false silence, or negative voltage VTE− after false fire, to induce time-dependent potentiation or depression, respectively.

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