The RRAM devices (33) used in this study consist of a 10-nm-thick switching layer of Si-doped HfOx deposited by atomic layer deposition on a confined TiN BE with 50-nm diameter. After deposition of the reactive Ti TE on the HfOx dielectric layer, partial Ti oxidation led to depletion of oxygen from the HfOx layer and forming of an interfacial oxygen exchange layer (OEL). The OEL was functional in increasing the concentration of oxygen vacancies in HfOx, thus enhancing the leakage current in the pristine state and reducing the forming voltage. A forming operation was conducted by the application of a pulse of 3-V amplitude and 100-ms pulse width to initiate the conductive filament creation before any other operations and characteristics. The RRAM was connected via the bottom TiN electrode to a FET, which was integrated in the front-end of the same silicon chip by conventional CMOS process. The resulting 1T1R structure was controlled during forming, set, and reset processes by applying pulses to the TE and gate contacts, with grounded source contact. The conduction and switching characteristics of the RRAM (Fig. 1C) were collected by an HP4155B semiconductor parameter analyzer connected to the experimental device within a conventional probe station for electrical characterization.

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