Sample fabrications
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Nano-kirigami with giant optical chirality
Sci Adv, Jul 6, 2018; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat4436

All the 3D structures were fabricated with a dual-beam FIB/SEM system (FEI Helios 600i) on self-supporting gold nanofilms. The 80-nm-thick gold film suspended on copper grid was prepared by lift-off process in previous studies and directly used here (40). To avoid unwanted film fluctuations, multiple flat and clean sample areas satisfying the fabrication requirements were carefully selected from more than 100 meshes on the copper grid. The maximum size of each sample area is ~100 μm × 100 μm, which is limited by the mesh size. For large-scale fabrication, suspended nanofilms with desirable flatness are commercially available, such as the silicon nitride film window (500 μm × 500 μm × 50 nm in size; Norcada) used in fig. S10B. The nano-kirigami method includes a two-dosage ion beam irradiation. First, the 2D patterns were directly cut by the FIB under high doses of 1.9 × 108 ions/μm (>600 pC/μm2). Subsequently, global ion beam irradiation was conducted by frame-scanning the effective sample area with relative low doses of 10 to 40 pC/μm2 without particular alignment. The whole process could be programmed into one step and in situ monitored by the SEM (see movie S1). The acceleration voltage and current beam of Ga+ were set at 30 kV and 24 pA, respectively, if not mentioned. In such a case, the nano-kirigami took a few minutes for most of the single structures. For an array of 3D pinwheels with lattice period of 1.45 μm and sample area of 30 μm × 30 μm, the fabrication time was less than 30 min. Because of the large scales of the structure, the overall fabrication resolution was about 20 nm.

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