Porcine eyes were obtained from a local slaughter house after slaughter, stored on ice for transportation, and kept at 4°C for no more than 36 hours before the experiments. The samples for the microscope propulsion experiments were dissected from the porcine vitreous and used within 30 min after dissection. The sample with a volume of ~10 μl was placed on a glass coverslip (Thermo Fisher Scientific) with a Gene Frame (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Then, ~2 μl of PBS (pH 7.6) buffer solution containing micropropellers was injected into the vitreous using a 10-μl pipette, and the sample was sealed with another piece of coverslip to prevent evaporation. For the control experiment, ~2 μl of PBS buffer solution containing micropropellers was injected into the 25% glycerol with the same process as the vitreous treatment. The sample was placed at the center of three orthogonal pairs of custom Helmholtz coils and observed under a microscope (Zeiss Observer) [objective, 50× and numerical aperture (NA) = 0.5 or objective, 100× and NA = 0.75]. The movies were captured using a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera (Andor Zyla) at ~48 frames per second, with 60N-C 1″ 1.0× Adapter (Zeiss) for the 50× objective and a 1.6× C-Mount Adapter (Best Scientific) for the 100× objective, respectively. ImageJ (version 1.51p, National Institutes of Health) was used to track the movement of the slippery micropropellers with the plugin Manual Tracking. The driving magnetic field has a strength of 8 mT, and the rotational frequency was swept from 10 to 80 Hz in a step of 10 Hz for the propulsion in the vitreous and 25% glycerol, and it was swept from 10 to 140 Hz in a step of 10 Hz for the propulsion in water. Five movies were taken for each frequency, and at least 20 propellers were tracked to calculate the average velocity and the SDs.

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