Both experiments from the present study were carried out under the same broad experimental design (with minor changes in experiment 2 to comply with requirements for neuroimaging investigations, see below). Participants were exposed to predictive cues anticipating an upcoming olfactory (of either HD or LD) or thermal stimulation (HP or LP). In half of the trials (reference trials), these cues were followed by the anticipated stimulation, and participants were then asked to evaluate its perceived unpleasantness. In the remaining trials, a short scenario was presented between the cue and the stimulation, describing either an ethical dilemma or a control story with no morally challenging elements. This experimental design (Fig. 1) allowed us to (i) analyze the reference trials to ensure that thermal and olfactory events were indeed comparably unpleasant in the absence of any moral/nonmoral scenario, (ii) investigate the effect of moral transgressions (versus nonmoral controls) on the subsequent experience of pain/disgust (dilemma ➔ stimuli), and (iii) assess the disgust/pain expectancy on the dilemma assessment (cue ➔ dilemma).

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