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Resolution tests
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Upper and lower plate controls on the great 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake
Sci Adv, Jun 20, 2018; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat4396

Extensive checkerboard resolution tests (CRTs) and restoring resolution tests (RRTs) (47) were conducted to assess the adequacy of the ray coverage and to evaluate the tomographic resolution beneath the Tohoku forearc. To perform a CRT, we first assigned positive and negative Vp perturbations to the 3D grid nodes that were arranged in the model space, then calculated synthetic travel times for the checkerboard model with the same numbers of seismic stations, events, and ray paths as those in the real data set, and then inverted the synthetic data to see whether the input checkerboard model could be recovered. The procedure of the RRT is the same as that of the CRT, except for the input model that was derived from the obtained tomographic images. To simulate picking errors of the arrival-time data, we added random noise with an SD of 0.1 s to the synthetic travel times before the inversion. The results of these resolution tests indicate that our 3D Vp model has a resolution of ~50 km in the lateral direction and ~5 to 10 km in depth in and around the UBP (figs. S2 to S7). The 2D Vp model of the overriding Okhotsk plate also has a lateral resolution of ~50 km, because it was derived from the 3D Vp model. The test results show that fine details of the Vp structure around the megathrust can indeed be resolved independently from the Vp structure of the overriding plate.

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