T-shaped tubes (Cole Parmer) were used as hosting structures for the fabrication of the tubistors. For the fabrication of source and drain electrodes, Au-coated (150 nm) Kapton films (120 μm) were used. Using the top opening, the source-drain electrodes were fixed inside the tube using a temporary cylindrical separator to avoid any contact between the two electrodes. The distance between the source and drain electrodes varied from 0.5 to 1.5 mm. Medical glue was used to seal the top opening. Before injection of the PEDOT:PSS solution, the system was washed and dried under nitrogen to remove possible contaminants. Three different gate electrodes were tested with the tubistor devices: (i) Ag/AgCl, (ii) Pt, and (iii) PEDOT:PSS. The different gates were placed inside a tubing extension and sealed. For long-term cell monitoring experiments, we used a Pt mesh electrode. The size of the Pt electrode was substantially larger than the scaffold to ensure efficient gating.

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