Animal studies were carried out under the approval of the Animal Research Ethics Committee of the Canton of Bern, Switzerland (permit numbers 91/11, 81/11, and BE60/17), the University of Bern Animal Care and Use Committee, and the UK Home Office (permit number 60/4443). For all studies, Balb/c, C57BL/6, UBC-GFP C57BL/6, Flk-GFP C57BL/6, and Lys-GFP C57BL/6 females 5 to 12 weeks of age, weighing 25 to 30 g at the time of infection were used. Mice were bred in the central animal facility of the University of Bern or supplied by Harlan Laboratories or Envigo Laboratories. Blood feeding to mosquitoes was performed under Ketasol/Dorbene anesthesia. Luminescence imaging was performed under isofluorane anesthesia, and intravital imaging was performed under xylazine/Ketasol/isofluorane anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize suffering.

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