For this study, the same human samples previously used by Joice et al. (6) for assessment of sites of gametocyte enrichment were analyzed. In summary, out of 103 samples, samples from HIV-positive individuals and individuals of unknown HIV status were excluded (27% of enrollees). For the remaining samples, only those for which all nine tissues were available (that is, spleen, heart, brain, lung, liver, BM, gut, kidney, and subcutaneous fat) were assessed. Further filters included a postmortem time before fixation greater than 12 hours (resulting in poor structural preservation of tissue samples) and availability of BM formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks. This resulted in the selection of a subset of 36 samples. Six were excluded because of lack of CD31 labeling by IHC in the BM sections. From the remaining 30 samples, 22 specimens were selected on the basis of the presence of at least two Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase–labeled parasites per 50 high-power fields in the CD31 analysis.

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