Patient samples used in this study were from autopsies performed as part of the pediatric severe malaria postmortem study conducted between 1996 and 2011, and the patient demographic information and sample collection procedure were previously described (6). The autopsy cohort study was approved by the institutional review boards at the University of Malawi College of Medicine, Michigan State University, and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Informed written consent was obtained from all parents/guardians of the enrolled patients. Criteria used for diagnosis and clinical management have been previously described (32). More than 2000 individuals were enrolled throughout the duration of this study, and the mortality rate for the study participants was between 15 and 20%. Consent was given to conduct an autopsy for 103 cases, and these autopsies were performed between 2 and 14 hours after death.

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