The galvanostatic DC measurements were conducted using a PGSTAT30 Autolab system (Eco Chemie). The galvanostatic characteristics were obtained with a time interval of 0.1 s and a constant current of 100 nA. The ionic conductivity was extracted from the mixed conductivity by subtracting the electronic conductivity from the total conductivityEmbedded Image

In addition, each conductivity was derived by the following equationEmbedded Imagewhere l is the thickness of the mixed conductor film, A is the effective electrode area, and R is the resistance.

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