The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the devices were measured using an Iviumsoft apparatus with simulated air mass (AM) 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm−2) via a solar simulator (Abet Technologies Sun 3000) under normal atmospheric conditions. The module exhibiting the best PCE was encapsulated using glass and ultraviolet curing adhesive and then sent to the KIER for certification. The details of the measurement conditions for the certification are described in fig. S8. IPCE spectra were measured using a Solar Cell Spectral Response/QE/IPCE measuring system (PV Measurements Inc.) with a chopping frequency of 100 Hz. Cross-sectional image samples of the PSC modules were prepared using a dual-beam focused ion beam (Helios NanoLab). The TEM, STEM, and EDS images were obtained using an FEI Tecnai G2 F30 S-Twin microscope operated at 200 kV. The XPS measurements were performed using a K-Alpha+ XPS spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific) with monochromatized Al-Kα x-ray photons (spot size, 400 μm; energy resolution, 0.5 eV full width at half maximum). Topography and current images were obtained using a MultiMode AFM Nanoscope V controller (Bruker). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were obtained using an S-4700 SEM instrument (Hitachi). PL mapping was conducted using an RPM 2000 spectrometer (Accent Optical Technologies). The stability test under a relative humidity of 85% and temperature of 85°C was performed using a humidity and temperature controller (Labmate). The photostability test for the PSC module was conducted in a glove box filled with N2 under continuous AM 1.5 global illumination without any encapsulations.

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