A 1.5 M CH3NH3PbI3 solution was prepared by dissolving PbI2 (99.9985%; Alfa Aesar) and CH3NH3I3 (Dyesol) powder (molar ratio, 1.5:1.45) in a mixed solvent of anhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide/dimethylsulfoxide (volume ratio, 87:13; Sigma-Aldrich). PFN (1-Material) was dissolved in anhydrous methanol (Sigma-Aldrich) at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.25 mg/ml. The TiOx precursor solution was prepared following the previously reported synthetic route (8). The ZnO nanoparticle (2.5% in mixed alcohol; Nano Clean Tech) solution was diluted in isopropanol to 1%. The poly-TPD (1-Material) solution was prepared by dissolving in CB at a concentration of 2 mg/ml. PTAA and PCBM solutions were prepared by dissolving PTAA (1-Material) and PCBM (Nano-C) in toluene (Sigma-Aldrich) at a concentration of 2 mg/ml and in CB (Sigma-Aldrich) at a concentration of 40 mg/ml.

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