All the electrical measurements were carried out on a micromanipulator probe station equipped with a heating stage. Ferroelectric properties were measured using a commercial ferroelectric tester (Precision LC, Radiant Technologies). Dielectric data were collected using a commercial impedance LCR meter (E4980A, Agilent). Photovoltaic responses were characterized by a picoampere meter/dc voltage source (4140B, Hewlett Packard) under ≈100 mW/cm2 white light illumination from a halogen lamp (see fig. S7 for detailed spectrum). The irradiation intensity was carefully calibrated using a standard reference cell (91150V, Newport). To ensure the reproducibility of the results, at least 10 devices from two to three different batches of samples were tested for each doping concentration.

Note: The content above has been extracted from a research article, so it may not display correctly.

Please log in to submit your questions online.
Your question will be posted on the Bio-101 website. We will send your questions to the authors of this protocol and Bio-protocol community members who are experienced with this method. you will be informed using the email address associated with your Bio-protocol account.

We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By using our website, you are agreeing to allow the storage of cookies on your computer.