The change in zonal wind in the upper troposphere from a temperature gradient anomaly can be approximated (38) asEmbedded Image

With the Coriolis frequency at the midlatitudes f = 10−4 s−1, the specific gas constant for air Rair = 287 m2 s−2 K−1, a surface pressure of p0 = 1000 mbar, an upper tropospheric pressure of p300 = 300 mbar, and a meridional temperature gradient anomaly of Embedded Image (as observed over latitudes 55°N to 66°N in the T fingerprint; Fig. 1A), this would result in an approximate change in zonal winds of

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