A 405-nm diode laser pumped a PPKTP (periodically poled KTP crystal) to generate pairs of 810 nm via type II spontaneous parametric downconversion. The resulting single-channel count rate and two-channel coincidence count rate reached 510,000 and 120,000, respectively. The generated photon pairs then passed an 810-nm band-pass filter and a polarized beam splitter to be divided to two purified components of horizontal and vertical polarization. The vertically polarized photon was coupled into a single-mode optical fiber and then injected into the photonic chips, whereas the horizontally polarized photon was connected to a single-photon detector that sets a trigger for heralding the vertically polarized photons on the ICCD camera with a time slot of 10 ns. Lacking an external trigger, the measured patterns would come from light in thermal states rather than single-photon states. The ICCD camera captured each evolution pattern from the photon output end of the photonic chip, after accumulating single-photon injections in the “external” mode for around an hour.

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