The AP-STM observations were performed using a small-volume (~15 ml) reaction cell integrated into a scanning probe microscope (SPM) instrument (SPECS) in a UHV chamber at room temperature. The inside of the reaction cell was separated from the outside by two tightly sealed O-rings. The topographic STM images were acquired using constant current mode with a chemically etched tungsten tip that was calibrated to standard measurements for each length in dimensions x, y, and z that were obtained from an atomically flat clean Au(111) surface. To obtain the in situ observations at ambient pressure, gas molecules were introduced to the reaction cell of the SPM instrument using a precision leak valve before measurements were taken under the various catalytic reaction environments. The pressure inside the reaction cell was measured using a full-range gauge (Pfeiffer Vacuum). The tunneling parameters of each AP-STM image are denoted as Vs for sample bias and It for tunneling current, respectively.

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