Animals were monitored every day for observation of water consumption, piloerection, stool consistency, the presence of gross blood in feces and near the anus, and morbidity. DAI was defined according to a previously established method (68). According to the calculated DAI values, the degree of colitis can range from 0 (unaffected) to 12 (severe colitis). At predetermined time periods, animals were euthanized, and the entire colon was quickly isolated to measure colonic length. In addition, segments of colon tissues were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin, and H&E-stained sections were prepared for histological analysis.

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