All binding studies based on SPR technology were performed on BIAcore T200 optical biosensor instrument (RRID:SCR_008424, GE Healthcare). Capture of single domain Hs2dAb-6xHis was performed on a nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) sensorchip in HBS-P+ buffer (10 mM Hepes pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, and 0.05% surfactant P20) (GE Healthcare). The four flow cells (FC) of the sensorchip were used: one (FC 1) to monitor nonspecific binding and to provide background corrections for analyses and the other three flow cells (FC 2, 3, and 4) containing immobilized Hs2dAb-6xHis for measurement.

For immobilization strategies, the four flow cells were loaded with nickel solution (10 μL/min for 60 s) in order to saturate the NTA surface with Ni2+ and an extra wash using running buffer containing 3 mM EDTA after the nickel injection. Each His-tagged hs2dAb in running buffer was injected in flow cells at a flow-rate of 10 μL/min. The total amount of immobilized hs2dAb-6xHis was 250–300 resonance units. (RUs; 1 RU corresponds approximately to 1 pg/mm2 of protein on the sensor chip). A Single-Cycle Kinetics (SCK) analysis to determine association (on-rates), dissociation (off-rates) and affinity constants (kon, koff and KD respectively) was carried out. SCK method prevents potential inaccuracy due to sensorchip regeneration between cycles which are necessary in the conventional multiple cycle kinetics (MCK) (Trutnau, 2006). SCK binding parameters are evaluated for each injection according to the tools and fit models of the BIAevaluation software, giving similar values than MCK. As hs2dAb were smaller proteins than their respective antigens, hs2dAbs were captured on the sensorchip while the recombinant antigens were used as analytes. Analytes were injected sequentially with increased concentrations ranging between 3.125 nM to 50 nM in a single cycle without regeneration of the sensorship between injections. Binding parameters were obtained by fitting the overlaid sensorgrams with the 1:1. Langmuir binding model of the BIAevaluation software version 1.0.

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