The lower limit of normal T1 and T2* for each segment was established as mean-2 standard deviations (SD) on data acquired on 80 healthy subjects. Since in healthy subjects T1 values are influenced by gender, gender-specific segmental thresholds were derived.

Heart failure (HF) was diagnosed by clinicians based on symptoms, signs and instrumental findings [32]. All arrhythmias were ECG-documented and required specific medication [33]. The term “cardiac complications” included HF and arrhythmias.

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