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Participant data were used from a dataset containing the baseline information of 8160 people who took part in a routine health examination at the Health Management Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University during June 2016 and May 2018. In the center, all subjects must accomplish a baseline health status survey questionnaire before checkup through the WeChat platform under the instructions of specialized medical staff. The initial purpose of the baseline questionnaire is to help medical staff understand the health status and living habits of the examinee, so as to better recommend physical examination items for them. It consists of 31 items concerning demography, present symptoms, history of disease and medication, family history of illness, health behavior issues and self-reported mental stress.

However, the questions pertaining to self-rated health and mental stresses were the focus of the analysis. A total of 18 items were used in the analysis at last. (1) For diet, we collected the frequency of cereal crops, meat, fish or other aquatic products, fresh vegetables or fruits, milk or dairy products, eggs, beans, desserts, fried foods, pickled or smoked foods, and nuts consumption (days per week). (2) In terms of physical exercise, variables include frequency (days per week), exercise duration (time per day). Refer to the American College of Sports Medicine’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (10th ed), at least 30 min of moderate-intensity (distinguished by sweating or not during the exercise) physical activity per for 3 times per week was defined as “regular exercise”. (3) The smoking situation was divided into smoking (at least 1 cigarette per day in the past year), former smoking (quit smoking for more than 6 months), and non-smoking. (4) Drinkers were referred to those who drink ≥1 time a month, and at least 1 cup each time (1 cup contains 10 g of ethanol, such as 20 mL wine, 300 mL beer, 100 mL red wine). Non-drinkers were those who drink < 1 time per month. For drinkers, the average daily alcohol intake was calculated by the average use of wine, beer, red wine per time and the frequency (times per week). (5) To describe the mental health, participants indicated their degree of stress in life or work during the last 12 months from four categories-“not at all”, “mild”, “moderate”, and “intense”.

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