A CBF test will be conducted to investigate whether aerobic exercise enhances brain health (e.g. increase resting CBF) and, if yes, whether increased resting CBF due to training will be maintained over 1 year after the exercise intervention completion. Cerebrovascular responses to increases in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) and to submaximal exercise (measures of cerebrovascular reserve) will be assessed using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. The experimental set-up and protocol used are described in detail in a previous publication from our laboratory [52]. Outcome measures for these tests include baseline CBF and cerebrovascular reserve (i.e., brain responses to CO2 and exercise), heart rate, blood pressure, and blood rheology (i.e., haematocrit, viscosity, and aggregation).

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