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The 12 purposively selected audio-recorded SOs were transcribed verbatim. Any consultation segments involving talk about the patient's medical history, personal life, or scheduled follow-up appointments, as well as small talk about non-medical issues (e.g., the weather) were first checked. If they did not contain any talk about uncertainty by the consulting oncologist (e.g., treatment options, side-effects, risks, recurrence), these segments were not transcribed and excluded from the analysis. All coding was performed using MAXQDA 2020 (VERBI Software, 2019). An inductive constant comparative approach was chosen to ensure that analysis was data-driven rather than informed by existing literature or a theoretical framework (Strauss, 1987; Boeije, 2002). We coded both verbal expressions of uncertainty that were made by the oncologist spontaneously, as well as those in response to the patient's expression of uncertainty. Communication about uncertainty was defined according to Han et al.'s (2011) definition of uncertainty as any talk by the oncologist indicating his/her subjective awareness of ignorance (p.830). Hence, this included any uncertainty about the likelihood of a future event (e.g., risks of side-effects), uncertainty due to limited available information (e.g., inconsistent test results) or due to complexity (e.g., the interplay between a multitude of causal factors) (Han et al., 2011). All 12 SOs were double-coded by two coders independently (JLS and MH) and subsequently discussed together with VL to resolve issues and constantly adjust the coding scheme. This procedure of researcher triangulation was employed to ensure that multiple perspectives and possible interpretations of the data were incorporated. All codes were clustered into overarching themes using thematic analysis through continuous discussions within the research team. After initial themes were identified, potentially disconfirming evidence was sought in our data and not identified, thus further enhancing the validity of our results (Creswell and Miller, 2000).

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