The data were extracted and captured on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet by one author to ensure continuity. Data extracted from the articles included the following categories:

method of random sequence generation, blind method in result measurement, description of missing data; patient inclusion criteria, follow-up time; data of the time, frequency, type, duration of SSE intervention; outcome measures. Three key criteria of randomization, allocation concealment and blindness in outcome measures published by the Cochrane team was used to evaluate Bias risk. The research team members cross-checked the information independently and the results of evaluation was compared to reach consensus.

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