We analyzed the data by using the statistical package SPSS v. 25.0. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD), and a P < 0.05 indicated significant difference. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was initially used to check the normal distribution of quantitative data. Two-sample t-tests were used when both sets of data followed a normal distribution; otherwise, the Mann–Whitney U-Test was used. Chi-square test was used for qualitative data. The following formula (1) was used to compute for the variability of gait parameters, and then, integrated using formula (2) (17, 18). We also used the asymmetry index (AI) to evaluate the symmetry of gait parameters by using formula (3) (19, 20).

CV indicates the coefficient of variation, and the subscripts L and R mean the left and right sides of patients, respectively.

where X = [SL, ST, SwPT, StPT, HS, TO, ROM-AJ, ROM-KJ, ROM-HJ], and the subscripts L and R indicate the left and right sides of patients, respectively. SL, stride length; ST, stride time; SwPT, swing phase time; StPT, stance phase time; HS, heel strike angle; TO, toe-off angle; ROM, range of motion; AJ, ankle joint; KJ, knee joint; HJ, hip joint.

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