A short questionnaire was developed by patient/public members and the PIONEER Health Data Research Hub team. See Table S1 of the online supplement for the questions asked. Verbal consent was given by all participants and where children under the age of 18 were approached, their parent, legal guardian or responsible adult provided verbal consent. Participants were asked to self-report their age group, ethnicity, gender, and to place themselves into one of six groups (patient, care-giver, visitor to hospital, NHS staff, NHS volunteer, public member) or they could choose not to report any of these groupings.

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