The cardiovascular outcomes of this work involved a combination of all-cause vascular morbidity and mortality, including recurrent ACS (myocardial infarction and unstable angina), coronary revascularization (percutaneous or surgical coronary intervention), cardiovascular mortality and readmission due to heart failure or ischemic stroke.

Myocardial infarction (MI), according to the universal definition, is a history of typical ischemic chest pain with increased serum levels of creatinine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) (greater than 1.5 times) and cardiac troponin above the upper limit of normal (Thygesen et al., 2018). Coronary revascularization was any percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft procedure performed in the absence of myocardial infarction. Unstable angina (UA) was considered when there is an episode of typical discomfort or pain at rest or during more than 10 minutes or two episodes persisting more than five minutes with negative cardiac biomarkers. Alterations in the electrocardiogram, including 0.5 mm ST-segment depression or transient ST-segment elevation or 2 mm T-wave inversion in 2 contiguous leads, may improve this definition specificity of this definition (Braunwald and Morrow, 2013). For cardiovascular mortality, the criteria used is in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes I00-I25, I27, I30-I52, and I60-I72. For ischaemic stroke, ICD-10 codes I63 and I64 were adopted.

In patients with multiple events, only the time of the first event was used for further analyses. Patients were followed-up from 13th March 1999 to 5th September 2019. Two cardiologists independently reviewed all prospective and potential outcomes. Confirmation was achieved on Hospital discharge or death-related summary of the events.

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