Two researchers (KW and ET) independently screened records to be included. Any discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Search results were screened for eligibility in 2 stages: first by title and abstract, then by full-text. Reasons for exclusion were recorded for each excluded study. In addition, a manual search of the references from the articles obtained from the databases was performed. After excluding duplicates, 230 studies were identified, and a decision was made to include a further 4 publications found among the references of the initially identified papers. Screening the titles and abstracts, we further excluded literature reviews (20), studies not involving UHR populations (154), studies on samples including individuals with an increased genetic risk of developing psychosis only (13), research protocols (1), studies using other classification tools (4), case studies (3), one letter to the editor (1), and conference abstracts (2). The remaining 32 papers were read in full; of these, we ultimately excluded: one study in which the UHR individuals were a subsample of a different study group (1), ones in which DTI was not the primary imaging technique or that analyzed non-relevant DTI parameters (4), a letter to the editor (1), one study in which only gray matter was tested (1), and one in which major discrepancies concerning the study group appeared (1). Thus, there were 24 studies in the final analysis. The following data were extracted from the included studies: authors, year of publication, methodology used in the original analyses (study design; tools used to measure symptom severity and level of functioning; and sample size and characteristics, i.e., age range, sex distribution, substance use, and medication status), the data needed for the assessment of research quality, and any coefficients/descriptive statistics required to analyze the relationship between white matter fibers and symptom severity and level of functioning. The review was updated in September 2020, and one more article meeting the aforementioned criteria was included in the qualitative synthesis. The article selection strategy is presented in Figure 1.

PRISMA flow diagram [29].

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