Thirty adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were employed for this study. They were obtained from the Animal Research and Service Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Kelantan, Malaysia, and housed in the Department of Physiology animal room. The rats were maintained in 12/12 h light/dark cycle and had ad libitum access to standard pellet diet and drinking water. They were acclimatized for 7 days before the experiment. The current study was approved by the animal ethics committee of USM, with approval number USM/IACUC/2017/(831). The rats were maintained in accordance with the Guidelines for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Institute of Health.

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