Rabbit polyclonal primary antibodies for caspase-3 (PAA626Ra01), NF-κB (PAB824Ra01), TNF-α (PAA133Ra01), IL-1β (PAA563Ra01) and IL-10 (PAA056Ra01) were purchased from Cloud-Clone Corp, Katy, TX, USA. Dako DAB+ substrate chromogen (K3468) and Dako EnVision™+ System/HRP (K4003) were purchased from Agilent Technologies, Inc., USA. Metformin was purchased from Hovid Bhd, Malaysia, while STZ was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (USA). All other reagents were of analytical grade.

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