2.2. Measurements
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Work–Family Balance among Dual-Earner Couples in South Korea: A Latent Profile Analysis
Int J Environ Res Public Health, Jun 6, 2021; DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18116129

To measure work–family balance, we used the work–family strains and gains scales developed by Marchall and Barnett [30]. Specifically, we used the questions that KICCE translated from the original scales for the panel study. Marshall and Barnett [11] argued that family life and parenting should be examined in detail because the quality of experience in the job and parenting roles contributes to work–family strains. Based on this, Marchall and Barnett [30] divided work–family and work–parenting and created four subcategories with a total of 26 questions. Each item was measured on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from strongly disagree (1 point) to strongly agree (5 points). Higher scores imply a stronger impact for each factor. In this study, we used the mean of the sum of each sub-factor This study Cronbach’s α 0.777. Examples of subfactor questions are as follows:

Factor I. Work–family gains: This sub-factor consists of seven questions and measures the positive aspect of work–family balance. Higher scores indicate a greater perception of gains in work–family balance. An example of a question in this category includes, “taking responsibility at work–family makes me a more balanced person.” This sub-factor Cronbach’s α 0.927.

Factor II. Work–family strains: This sub-factor consists of nine questions and measures the negative aspects of work–family balance. Higher scores indicate a greater perception of strain in work–family balance. An example of a question in this category includes “things to do at work interfere with time spent with family.” This sub-factor Cronbach’s α 0.868.

Factor III. Work–parenting gains: This sub-factor consists of four questions and measures the positive aspects of work–parenting balance. Higher scores indicate a greater perception of gains in work–parenting balance. An example of a question in this category is “my work for has a positive effect on my child.” This sub-factor Cronbach’s α 0.869.

Factor IV. Work–parenting strains: This sub-factor consists of six questions and measures the negative aspects of work–parenting balance. Higher scores indicate a greater perception of strain in the work–parenting balance. An example of a question in this category is “my job seems to put a strain on the child.” This sub-factor Cronbach’s α 0.847.

To identify the types of work–family and work–parenting gains and strains, we selected the following characteristics as variables: demographic characteristics, household and couple characteristics, health characteristics, and psychosocial characteristics.

For demographic characteristics, the following variables were used: age (≤39, 40–49, ≥50); educational level (≤high school graduate, college, university, or masters); employment status (Permanent, Self-Employed, Temporary).

Characteristics of households and couples included: the number of children, household income (≤3.99 million, 4.00–4.99 million, 5.00–5.99 million, ≥6.00 million), and area (Urban, Rural, Suburban).

Health characteristics included: alcohol use frequency (no, ≤once a week, ≥twice a week), smoking (never, ≤10, 11–20, ≥21), and subjective health status (score 1, very un-healthy; score 5, very healthy).

Psychosocial characteristics included: depression (score ≥ 19: severe, score 14–18: mild, score ≤ 13: normal), subjective happiness (score 1 Unhappiness ~ score 7 happiness), daily stress (score 1 not at all, score 3 very much), life satisfaction (satisfied, neutral, dissatisfied), and social support (score 1: no support ~ score 5: high level of support). Each of these characteristics were measured using the mechanisms explained below:

Depression (K6)

K6 consists of six questions that ask respondents how frequently in the past 30 days they had felt: (1) nervous, (2) hopeless, (3) restless or fidgety, (4) so depressed that nothing could cheer them up (depressed), (5) that everything was an effort, and (6) worthless. For each of these questions, the K6 included five response options: “never,” “a little of the time,” “some of the time,” “most of the time,” and “all of the time.” Responses were scored from 1 (“never”) to 5 (“all of the time”), score ≥19: severe, score 14–18: mild, and score ≤ 13: normal [31];

Subjective happiness Scale (SHS)

The SHS consists of four questions that ask respondents to select the level that feels most appropriate to their life. 1) In general, I consider myself: (1) not a very happy person–(7) a very happy person. 2) Compared to most of my peers, I consider myself: (1) less happy–(7) more happy. 3) Some people are generally very happy. They enjoy life regardless of what is going on, getting the most out of everything. To what extent does this characterization describe you? (1) not at all–(7) a great deal. 4) Some people are generally not very happy. Although they are not depressed, they never seem as happy as they might be. To what extend does this characterization describe you? (1) not at all–(7) a great deal. The evaluation was made using the average of the four questions; responses were scored from 1 (unhappiness) to 7 (happiness) [32];

Daily stress

The questions ask respondents about how much stress they usually experienced. For these questions, response options included: (1) not at all; (2) little; (3) very much. The evaluation was made using the average;

Life satisfaction

These questions asked respondents how satisfied there currently are with their life. For these questions, response options included: “satisfied”, “neutral,” and “dissatisfied.”;

Social support

This measures how much social support the family receives from outside the household by measuring four sub-factors: emotional, instrumental, informational, social network. This section consists of 13 questions.

Examples of subfactor questions are as follows:

Emotional support: Always care about my work and worry about it;

Instrumental support: Support the necessary item;

Informational support: Information necessary for parenting children is available;

Friendly support: Contact and visit frequently.

Responses were scored from 1 (“no support”) to 5 (“high level of support”), the evaluation was made using the average [33].

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