Icaritin (purity ≥ 98.5%) and remdesivir (purity ≥ 98.5%) were provided by Beijing Shenogen Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Beijing, China). Diosmin (97% purity), ibuprofen (purity ≥ 99%), dimethylsulfoxide-d6 (d6-DMSO), D2O, Cy5 NHS and Cy5.5 NHS were purchased from Beijing Inno-chem Co. Ltd. (Beijing, China). Poloxamer 407 (P407) and Soluplus® were obtained from Beijing Fengli Jingqiu Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Beijing, China). Chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CMZ), amiloride, genistein, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and β-glucurondase were gained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS), Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM), penicillin–streptomycin, trypsin-EDTA were all purchased from Beijing M&C Gene Technology (Beijing, China). Fetal bovine serum (FBS) was supplied by GIBCO (Burlington, Ontario, Canada). Plastic culture flasks (25 and 75 cm2) and Transwell 12-well plates were purchased from Corning (Corning, NY, USA). All other chemicals used were of the highest purity available.

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