2.2. Tests of the Chemical Composition of the Materials Used for Specimens Preparation

The X-ray fluorescence method (XRF) was used to determine chemical composition of slags, zeolite and fly ash. It is a common method used in the cement industry to test the chemical composition of cement and other additives and powders. Tests were carried out according to PN-EN ISO 12677:2011 [63] on samples grounded to a grain size less than 100 μm and dried at 105 °C to constant weight. Dried samples was ignited at 1025 °C and the loss of ignition was determined. In order to prepare fused cast bead used for analysis the sample ignited to constant weight was fused with a mixture of lithium tetraborate (66.67%), lithium metaborate (32.83%) and lithium bromide (0.5 %) produced by Spex CertiPrep (Metuchen, NJ, USA). The chemical composition analysis was performed using a MagiX PW2424 spectrometer produced by PANalytical (Almelo, The Netherlands) calibrated using a series of certified reference materials JRRM 121-135, JRRM 201-210 and JRRM 301-310 (The Technical Association of Refractories, Japan (TARJ), Xiamen, China). Moreover, sulphate tests were carried out with the analytical method according to EN 196-2: 2005, point 8 [62].

The results of tests on the chemical composition of the components used to prepare the mixtures are summarized in Table 3.

The chemical composition of GGBFS, furnace slag (LFS), fly ash from the biomass block (BFA) and zeolite used in the examination [64].

Analyzing the chemical composition (Table 3) of the components from which the binder is to be made, and the assumption that it will be the AAS binder, but slightly modified, it can be seen that the main binding phases will be silicon-calcium. There must not be too much BFA in the mix due to the lead and potassium content causing the expansive alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Additionally, LOI of BFA is a little high, which may result in carbon deposits on the surface of the material or other impurities. Due to the potassium content, zeolite is also not very safe, however phase studies can try to confirm whether the alkali is in the soluble or reactive phases. LFS will be used in a slightly higher dose than BFA.

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