Data did not meet the normality assumption of ANOVA even after transformation (Kolmogorov–Smirnov one-sample test), and therefore were analyzed by the non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA followed by the Mann–Whitney U-test for multiple comparisons using SYSTAT 12.0 software (Systat Software Inc., Richmond, CA, USA). Differences were accepted when significant at the 5% level.

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