The morphology of the pristine and activated composites was observed by the SEM (JSM-5900LV, JEOL, Tokyo, Japan). The FTIR spectra were obtained by a Spectrum GX FTIR spectrometer (Perkin15 Elmer Inc., Waltham, MA, USA) to identify chemical functional groups on the sample surface, operating between 4000 and 400 cm−1 with a resolution of 4 cm−1, using the KBr tablet method. The crystal structures of all samples were determined by using XRD (DX2700, Haoyuan Instruments Co., Dandong, China) with Cu Kα radiation (k = 1.5418 Å) produced at 40 kV and 40 mA. XRD patterns were recorded at a diffraction angle range of 2θ = 5–90° under a continuous scan using 0.06° step size. TGA was fulfilled with a thermal graphic analyzer (HTG-2, Beijing Hengjiu Science In-strument Factory, Beijing, China) with a heating rate of 10 K min1 from room temperature to 1073 K under N2 flow (60 mL min−1). TEM (Tecnai G2 F20S-TWIN, FEI, Hillsboro, OH, USA) was used to observe the thickness changes of the samples before and after coating. The surface compositions of M-P nanocomposite fabricated under different conditions were characterized by XPS (AXIS NOVA, Kratos, UK). The pore structure characteristics of the porous materials were determined by nitrogen adsorption at −196 °C using TristarII3020 analyzers (Micromeritics, Norcross, GA, USA), and all samples were degassed at 150 °C under vacuum at 200 Pa for a period of at least 12 h. The surface area was calculated using the multipoint Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method. Raman spectra were recorded with a DXR Raman Microscope (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) using an excitation wavelength of 514.5 nm.

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