All statistical analyses were performed using the SAS survey procedure (version 9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). The statistical significance level was set at p < 0.05. We divided the NHIS-recorded HDLI cases into four diagnosis codes (J68.4, J84.9, J95.2, and S27.3) to evaluate the annual incidence of each diagnostic code. To calculate the incidence rate per 100,000 population for each year, the number of disease-specific cases for the year was divided by the number of populations for the year and multiplied by 100,000. Using the same method, the number of disease-specific cases stratified by age and sex for the year was divided by the number of populations stratified by age and sex for the year and multiplied by 100,000 to calculate the age- and sex-specific incidence rates per 100,000 population for each year. The total number of age- and sex-specific populations per year between 2002 and 2017 used the resident population data reported by Statistics Korea. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were computed to evaluate the time-lag effects of annual HD sales (i.e., total sales, sales by product, and sales by chemicals) on the number of NHIS-recorded HDLI cases and self-reported HDLI cases using 0-to-5 year lag time. For self-reported HDLI cases, the Chi-square test was used to compare differences in the characteristics between HDLI-survivors and HDLI-deaths.

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