Data regarding annual sales from 1994 to 2011, i.e., launched year to banned year, were used for all available HD products. These data were obtained by combining data from the Asian Citizen’s Center for Environment and Health (ACCEH) [7], the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) [16], the National Assembly, and Choi’s study [17]. Among the initial 25 kinds of HD products, those products with no available information on the sales period (n = 5) and annual sales (n = 3) were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total of 17 eligible HD products (see Supplementary Figure S1 online). Because HD products had been recalled since the Korean government officially banned the sales of HD in November 2011, we assigned a value by subtracting the annual recalls from the annual sales. When the number of annual recalls was larger than the number of annual sales, we assigned the value “0”.

Moreover, annual HD sales were classified by four chemical types: PHMG (CAS number: 89697-78-9), CMIT/MIT (CAS number: 26172-55-5/2682-20-4), PGH (CAS number: 374572-91-5), and other chemicals; (1) PHMG chemicals include the products of Oxy Ssakssak New Gaseupgi Dangbun (Oxy; Oxy Reckitt Benckiser (RB) Korea, Seoul, Korea), Lotte WiseLect Gaseupgi Salgyunje (Lotte; Lotte Mart, Seoul, Korea), Homeplus Gaseupgi Chungjungje (Homeplus; Homeplus, Seoul, Korea), and Homecare Bejiteobeulhom Gaseupgi Cleanup (Homecare; Costco Korea, Gyeonggi, Korea); (2) CMIT/MIT chemicals include the products of Aekyung Gaseupgi Mate and Palanhaneul Malg-eun Gaseupgi (Aekyung; Aekyung, Seoul, Korea), E-Mart Eplus Gaseupgi Salgyunje (E-Mart; E-Mart, Seoul, Korea), GS Hambakwussom Gaseupgi Sejeongje (GS; GS Retail, Seoul, Korea), Daiso Sandokkaebi Gaseupgi Punisher (Daiso; Asung Daiso, Seoul, Korea), Henkel HomeKeeper Humidifier Sterilizer (Henkel; Henkel Homecare Korea, Seoul, Korea), and SK Yugong Gaseupgi Mate; (3) PGH chemicals include the products of Butterfly Effect Cefu Gaseupgi Salgyunje (Butterfly Effect; Butterfly Effect, Gyeonggi, Korea) and Ato Organic Gaseupgi Salgyunje (Ato Organic; Ato Organic, Gyeonggi, Korea); (4) other chemicals include the products of Clannad N-with (Clannad; Clannad, Gyeonggi, Korea), Oxy Ssakssak with solid type (Oxy with solid type), Oxy Gaseupgi Dangbun, LG 119 Gaseupgi segyunjegeo, Ato Safe Gaseupgi Chungjungje/Hangkyunje (Ato Safe; Ato Safe, Seoul, Korea), Eco-fresh Gaseupgi Hangkyunball (Eco-fresh; JnK Science, Seoul, Korea), and Water&People Modern Life Salgyunball (Water&People; Nutricare, Gyeonggi, Korea) [16].

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