Axis (X, Y and Z) and extruder linear movement accuracy was measured using a dial test indicator (Draper Expert N° 46609) with a 10 μm resolution. The tests were done in three measurement points for the X, Y and Z axis and in one measurement point for the extruder rack. The points were placed at zero (home), maximum axis length and at the middle of the axis. As the extruder did not have maximum and minimum position, one aleatory position of the rack was selected as the measurement point. The test consisted in positioning each axis at the selected point, moved the axis 10 mm and return to the initial position (Figure 3). The positioning error of each movement was repeated and measured 10 times for each selected point. The movement accuracy was calculated as the average value of all measurements for each axis. In a similar manner, the precision of the movement was calculated as the standard deviation of the previous accuracy. Additionally, the mean square error of the X-Y plane is calculated using the average value of each measurement point for X and Y axes obtaining a 3 × 3 matrix.

Schematic representation of the accuracy measurement protocol. X, Y and Z axes measurements (left) were done in 3 different points and extruder rack measurement (right) were done in a single point. All measurement were repeated 10 times.

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